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CNC metal cutter machine is used in a wide variety of industries: in mechanical engineering, metallurgy and furniture manufacturing. Such popularity is explained by the fact that it allows you to create parts of a complicated shape with an increased level of accuracy. Such equipment will be discussed in our article.
Design and principle of CNC metal cutter machine operation
CNC metal cutter machine perform three main functions:
- Engraving: drawing a picture, text and even a photograph on a metal surface;
- Laser cutting;
- Curvilinear cutting.
- In all cases, a template is formed, according to which the numerical control module sets the cut parameters. The result is a perfectly accurate product.
The main advantage of laser machines is high productivity: a large number of products can be processed in a relatively short period of time.
The design of any CNC laser cutter includes several blocks:
- Emitter – responsible for generating a stream of photons or a narrowly focused laser pulse;
- Gas transfer unit – designed to blow out hot metal from the working area and cool the emitter;
- Drive – used to move the emitter along the treated surface;
- Working cutting table – it is on it that the workpiece is placed, while the table can be replaceable;
- CNC/ACS module.
The principle of operation cnc metal cutter machine
The principle of operation of such CNC metal laser cutting machines is based on the generation of a narrow beam by a laser tube that performs metal processing. As a result of the contact of the beam with the surface of the material being processed, a high-temperature effect occurs, which makes it possible to engrave or cut the metal. At the same time, the flow of the gas mixture blows out a layer of molten material, which ensures a high quality cut. Such machines can be used to work with all types of sheet steels, as well as with non-ferrous metals and their alloys.
Four types CNC metal laser cutting machine
The essence of the work of any CNC metal laser cutter is to focus a narrow beam, as a result of which the energy is concentrated on the surface of the material being processed. The diameter of such a beam does not exceed tenths of a millimeter, which ensures the minimum thickness of the cut. The course of melting and the subsequent transformation of the metal structure occur as a result of bringing the power characteristics of the laser beam to certain parameters. Depending on the mechanism of work, there are four main types of such cnc metal laser cutting machines.
Gas cnc metal cutter machine
CNC laser cutting of metal can be carried out in an oxygen or nitrogen environment, the choice depends on the characteristics of the metal to be processed. So, as a result of oxygen exposure, exothermic reactions are triggered, the thermal energy of which makes it possible to cut rather thick sheets of low-alloy and carbon steel.
It is not recommended to cut in oxygen galvanized or galvanized surfaces. In this case, the cut is uneven, and the risk of scale formation also increases. When cutting stainless or high-alloy steel, it is undesirable to allow oxidation of the cut point. That is why when working with such metals, inert gases, most often nitrogen, are in demand.
Nitrogen in cnc metal cutting machine is also used in cases where sections will subsequently be stained. If oxygen is used, then the oxidation of the metal will lead to a decrease in the quality of the tinting
Any gas medium can be used in cnc metal laser cutting machine to cut aluminum. But to work with titanium alloys, neither one nor the other can be used, since both gases begin to be absorbed by the metal surface and form a brittle layer. For this material, preference should be given to laser devices operating in helium or highly purified argon
If you want to cut titanium, you will get more information from this: https://metal-laser-cutter.com/laser-cutting-titanium/
In general, any gas CNC laser cutters give the maximum wave of radiation, so they are in demand when cutting sheet metal of maximum thickness.
Fiber optic cnc metal cutter machine
High efficiency and productivity of the CNC metal cutting equipment is provided by fiber optic laser devices, they are often implemented in the form of mini-machines. They have the following advantages.
- High beam quality. The cnc cutting line is thinner and the spot size is smaller, which improves overall work efficiency.
- High cutting speed. Compared to gas cnc laser cutter, it is twice as much.
- Durability. The use of a professional cnc fiber-optic laser ensures stable performance of up to 100,000 hours of equipment operation.
- Increased efficiency. The efficiency of photoelectric conversion during cnc fiber optic cutting corresponds to 30%, which is 2-3 times more than when laser cutting in a gaseous medium.
- Low cost of use. The power consumption of cnc fiber laser cutter installations does not exceed 30% of laser cutting in a gas environment.
- Minimum maintenance costs. The absence of the need for reflective lenses saves a lot of money on cnc metal machine maintenance.
The operation of such cnc metal laser cutting equipment is not particularly difficult. Due to the transmission of optical fiber, there is no need to adjust the parameters of the optical path.
Diode cnc metal cutter machine
The main working element of a diode laser cutter is an emitter in the form of a semiconductor crystal formed as an optical resonator. In addition to the diode, such a cnc laser includes a specialized device for AC power. This allows you to vary the parameters of the output radiation.
Also, the design provides for a temperature control sensor and an optical device, which make it possible to repeatedly increase the monochromaticity of the laser beam.
However, a diode-type laser cutter significantly loses to gas and fiber laser cutter ones in terms of coherence parameters. Focusing gives a large divergence, so it is impossible to concentrate energy to the maximum extent. The only advantage of such cnc laser cutting equipment lies in the relative cheapness of all other models.
Solid state cnc metal cutter machine
The principle of operation of a solid-state cnc laser cutting machine resembles a gas laser. But he also has his own characteristics. Unlike the gaseous medium, the active medium of solid forms is used here. As a rule, these are crystals and various glasses that are activated upon contact with rare earth elements. Such lasers are characterized by increased efficiency, while a number of models have a fairly compact size. These cutters produce beams whose wavelength allows you to successfully work with metals of different types and thicknesses.
Popular cnc metal cutter manufacturers
Today, there are CNC laser cutters for metal from a variety of manufacturers on the market. Among foreign companies in the domestic market, the products of factories located in European countries, the United States, as well as in Japan and Taiwan are very popular:
- Trumpf (Germany);
- Schuler (Germany);
- Trotec (Austria);
- Farley Laserlab (Australia);
- GCC (Taiwan).
In addition, Chinese-made CNC metal laser cutter machines products occupy a large market share. The opinion about it is ambiguous, many doubt its quality. However, some brands, whose production facilities are located in China, work according to Swiss technology and under strict control by the customer. They produce laser machines with exceptionally high technical and operational characteristics. These companies include:
- JNCT LASER
- CNCT LASER
How to choose cnc metal cutter machine?
When choosing a CNC laser cutter for metal, you need to pay attention to the following characteristics.
- Assortment of materials. First of all, it is necessary to take into account the specifics of the enterprise. It is important to clarify what the parts to be cut are made of and what their thickness is. These factors should be compared with the technical data of the cnc metal cutter machine, the size of the working field and the operating parameters of themetal cuttingequipment.
- Power. The average power of all CNC laser machines today varies from 500 to 6000 watts. If you plan to cut metal sheets less than 6mm thick, a 500-700W laser cutter will suffice. To work with thicker material, you need to choose machines with maximum power.
- Snap. When it comes to fiberlaser cuttingmachines, you need to pay attention to consumables: servo motors, guides, cutting heads, chimeras and others. The quality and functionality of these components have an impact on the accuracy and speed of laser cutting. Some unscrupulous manufacturers complete cnc metal laser cutting equipment not with original components, but with their analogues in order to reduce costs. This may confuse the buyer. Therefore, information about the origin of consumables must be clarified in advance.
- The quality of thecnc metal laser cutter equipment. In recent years, there has been a trend towards a reduction in the production cycle at most enterprises. Many companies, especially those that have recently appeared on the market, do not pay enough attention to testing their laser cutters before delivery to the customer and do not perform quality control of the cnc metal laser cutter equipment. Therefore, when choosing a machine, it is very important to pay attention to the availability of testing and pre-sales services from the manufacturer.
- Service. When choosingcnc metal cutter machineequipment, it is better to give preference to machines of those manufacturers whose service departments are represented in the region of use. Otherwise, any defects during operation will lead to long-term repairs and, accordingly, production downtime.
cnc metal cutter machines are universal. And this applies to both the materials used and the breadth of production possibilities. In particular, they can be used for cutting and engraving metals.
The most common use of cnc metal cutter machine equipment is cutting material. Machine tools in which the main cutting tool is a laser are widespread in metalworking. They allow you to make:
- Individual elements of indoor and outdoor advertising structures;
- Constructors and puzzles made of metal;
- Decor items;
- Parts for auto and aircraft modeling;
Laser engraving of metal products can turn the simplest thing into a priceless gift. The most accurate engraving is obtained using a laser beam. The images applied in this technique have an unlimited shelf life, they are not afraid of abrasion, exposure to acid-base solutions, water, ultraviolet radiation and temperature changes.
With the help of a computer-controlled cnc metal cutter machine, you can get an image with maximum detail. Often, intricate patterns are created on metal surfaces and even photographs are reproduced.
Most often, a cnc metal laser cutter is used to engrave lighters, cigarette cases, jewelry, cold and small arms, as well as decor items.
The laser beam can be used to engrave not only flat surfaces, but also convex surfaces. In this case, a specialized cnc metal cutter machine for fixing the workpiece is connected to the machine engine. The rotation of the engine is transferred to the workpiece, it begins to move at a given speed and the laser beam applies an image from all sides.